Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms. Though heredity had been observed for millennia, Gregory Mendel, Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar working in the 19th century in Brno, was the first to study genetics scientifically. Wikipedia
The DNA code contains instructions needed to make the proteins and molecules essential for our growth, development and health.
Genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of DNA to alter an organism’s characteristics (phenotype) in a particular way.
A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke.
The key difference between NGS and WGS is that next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a massively parallel second-generation sequencing technology that is high throughput, low cost, and speedy, while whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a comprehensive method of analyzing the entire genomic DNA of a cell at a single time.
Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing
Reversible Terminator Sequencing by Synthesis
Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation Detection
Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing by Synthesis
Ion Torrent—Sequencing by Synthesis.
How does exome sequencing help us diagnose and treat disease?
Research has shown that exome sequencing could detect genetic mutations related to birth defects and developmental delays. So, patients who have a family history of disease or are searching for a diagnosis to explain symptoms may be able to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests by undergoing exome sequencing.
There are several limitations to using next-generation sequencing. Next-generation sequencing provides information on a number of molecular aberrations. For many of the identified abnormalities, the clinical significance is currently unknown.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a technology for determining the sequence of DNA or RNA to study genetic variation associated with diseases or other biological phenomena.
In 2009, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies began to be applied to several areas of plant virology including virus/viroid genome sequencing, discovery and detection, ecology and epidemiology, replication and transcription.
The major strength of next-generation sequencing is that the method can detect abnormalities across the entire genome (whole-genome sequencing only), including substitutions, deletions, insertions, duplications, copy number changes (gene and exon) and chromosome inversions/translocations.
When it comes to application of NGS to plant species, the broadest and most prominent is whole genome sequencing (WGS) in quest for revealing the full sequence of plant genomes, their genetic make-up as well as genetic background of desirable traits in agricultural production.
Nick McCooke led the pioneer team at Solexa that invented next-generation sequencing, a technology to read DNA at high speed that is nowadays used worldwide and has laid the foundation for precision medicine. Solexa was acquired by Illumina in 2006 for what amounted to around €500M back then.